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What certifications are available for small appliances?

Table of Contents

Basic knowledge of safety regulations(USA & E.U.)

1, Introduction to safety regulations

Safety regulations are also known as safety standards specifications. The countries involved in the product’s safety and the development of the corresponding safety testing standards and safety regulations on the manufacture of devices and electrical components have a clear statement and guidance to provide a safe and high-quality product to end users.

Safety standards regulate the design and manufacture of various electrical equipment to ensure personal safety and the use of the environment from any hazards and development (including U.L., IEC, G.B., etc.).

The standards specify protection against electric shock, overload protection, heat, mechanical strength, durability, internal wiring and terminals, screws and connections, creepage distance and electrical clearance, corrosion and moisture resistance, heat and flame resistance and leakage trace resistance, anti-electromagnetic radiation, anti-toxicity, and other safety requirements.

The purpose of safety standards is mainly to ensure that the product can meet specific requirements, to prevent the development from causing harm to humans and the environment, and to protect the rights and interests of consumers.

Certification bodies test products mainly based on the standards and specifications to which the product belongs.

2, The formation of national safety standards

To ensure the safety of people’s lives and property in their countries and invite relevant scholars to jointly develop product safety standards to reduce the risk to users of products on the market in their countries or property caused by the danger.

All products in the country before entering the market for sale must be tested and approved by the relevant national product safety standards before they can sell them in the local market.

The designer must understand the essential safety requirements to design a safe product.

The standard reflects the essential safety requirements, but the detailed provisions of the bar do not fully reflect the safety requirements.

Designers in the design of products not only consider the normal operating conditions of the product but also consider the possible failure conditions and the subsequent failure, foreseeable misuses such as temperature, humidity, pollution, overvoltage, etc, and the impact of the product itself.

What you should note is that the certification mark is not a quality mark. However, it is a part of the product’s safety check but does not mean that the product’s use performance is also excellent. So when buying goods, in addition to having a certification mark, other indicators are also important.

3, The main content of the safety regulations

The product should be designed and manufactured to protect the human body from the following hazards.

  • Electric shock
  • Energy hazards
  • Fire and heat hazards
  • Mechanical and heat hazards
  • Radiation hazards
  • Chemical hazards

Reasons for the formation of the risk of electric shock

The passage of an electric current causes electric shock through the body. The physiological response it causes depends on the magnitude and duration of the current value and its path through the body.

The value of the current depends on the applied voltage, the power source’s impedance, and the body’s impedance.
A current of only a few milliamperes can affect an average healthy person, such as a burn or fibrillation of the ventricles.
The human body responds to electrical currents.

The nature of the
current passing through
D.C.mAA.C.50kHz(mA)A.C.10kHz(mA)
Sex Man Woman Man Woman Man Woman
The sensation is
not too painful
5.23.51.10.6128
Painful sensation6241965537
Painful, muscles
are not free
74501610.57550
Breathing difficulty
muscle contraction
906023159463
The physiological response of the human body to electrical currents varies by gender.

The danger of electric shock / Prevention methods:

  • Develop a safe voltage range to limit the current flowing through the human body. Like Vdc≤60V / VpK≤42.5VpK.
  • Separate dangerous live parts with adequate insulation.
  • Increase the distance from hazardous live parts. Limit the leakage current from the dangerous live elements to the accessible features. I LK ≤0.25mA.

The Energy hazard / Causes of formation.

A short circuit between two adjacent terminals of a line with a high current supply or high capacitance may cause arc discharge or burn and eject molten metal. Even if it is a low-voltage line, it may cause an energy hazard.
Prevention methods

  • Isolation; no chance of short circuit.
  • Use safety interlocking devices.

The danger of overheating or fire / Causes of formation.

Abnormally high product temperatures due to product overload, part failure, insulation breakdown, short circuit or abnormal operation, injury caused by users touching hot parts, and possible formation of a fire source.

Prevention methods

  • Provision of overcurrent protection devices.
  • By clearly labeling products for overheating.
  • Limiting the number of flammable materials; shielding or Isolating; using protective enclosures or baffles to limit flame spread only within the equipment. Use suitable materials for enclosures to reduce the possibility of flame spreading outside the equipment.

The Mechanical hazards / Causes of formation.

The existence of sharp edges of the product, or the product for some reason (such as by external impact, fall) to produce rupture on the parts of the body to produce damage. For example, products such as CRT or high-pressure lamps burst to produce debris.

Prevention methods

  • By rounding off sharp edges and corners.
  • Providing protective equipment for the use of products
  • Use of safety interlocking devices.
  • By ensuring that floor-mounted equipment is sufficiently stable.
  • Selecting CRTs and burst-resistant high-pressure lamps that are resistant to implosion.
  • Provide warning signs to warn users when contact is unavoidable.

Dangers of radiation / Causes of formation.

Some form of radiation is generated when the product works, which can be dangerous to users and maintenance personnel. As CRT is harmful to the human eye. Power products are mainly on the grid or around the other electrical appliances caused by electromagnetic interference, preventing the definitive work of other equipment. For example, inside the same dormitory, when a colleague is charging a cell phone, the wonderful music on the radio becomes a rustling noise.  On the other hand, if EMC does not pass the cell phone charger, charging a cell phone as long as the phone is on will be impossible. That is because the charger will have no output.

Ways to reduce the risk of radiation

  • By limiting the energy level of potential sources of radiation.
  • Shielding the source of radiation (copper tape on the transformer, copper skin of the peripheral package in the power supply product)

The Chemical Hazards / Causes of Formation.

Toxic chemicals and their vapors can cause injury if the human body comes into direct contact with them.

Prevention methods.

  • Design the equipment to avoid such chemical hazards under normal and abnormal operating conditions.
  • Avoid conditions under which items may leak or vaporize.
  • Provide warning signs to alert users to the presence of chemical hazards.

The basic understanding of the commonly used safety mark / the world’s certification mark.

CountryMarkCountryMark
EuropeC.E., En/en, EN/ECFranceNF
GermanyVDE, TüV, GSHollandKEMA- KEUR
USAUL, FCC, ETCSwitzerlandS+
JapanPSEAustriaOVE
CanadaCSAItalyIMAGE
BrasilINMETRORussiaGUEST R, PCT
NorwayNEMKOAustraliaSAA
DemarkDEMKOKoreaKC
FinlandFIMKOSingaporeSAFETY
SwedenSEMKOIsraelSII
EnglandBSI, UKCASouth AfricaNRCS, SABS
BelgiumCEBECArgentinaIRAM
The world’s certification mark.

Code interpretation in the standard

  • CSA ——Canadian standards association
  • U L——Underwriters Laboratories. Inc
  • IEC——International Electrotechnical Commission
  • IECEE——the International Electrotechnical Commission for Safety of Electrical Equipment
  • CEE——International commission on rules for the approval of electrical equipment
  • CEI——commission electrotechnique international
  • CENELEC——European committee for electrotechnical standardization
  • EN——European standard
  • B.S.——British standard
  • JIS——-Japan industry standard
  • C.B.——certification body
  • LVD——Low voltage directive
  • EMC——Electromagnetic compatibility
  • AS/NZS——Australian/New Zealand Standard
  • VDE——verband der elektrotechink elektronik informations techink e.v
  • SAA——Standards Association of Australia
  • HD——harmonization document
  • SGS——Société Générale de Surveillance
  • ITS——Intertek testing services
  • TüV——Rheinland Certification Germany
  • JET——Japan electric test laboratory
Products & CategoriesIEC/EN StandardANSI/standardCSA Standard
Kitchen Appliance
Vacuum cleanerEN/IEC 60335-2-2 ANS/UL 1017C22.2 No. 243 OR E335-2-2
IronEN/IEC 60335-2-3ANS/UL 1015 or ANS/UL 60335-2-3C22.2 No.81 or E335-2-3
Electric oven / electric stove / grillEN/IEC 60335-2-9ANS/UL 1206C22.2 No.64 or E335-2-9
Electric frying pan / Air fryerEN/IEC 60335-2-13 ANS/UL 1083C22.2 No.64 or E335-2-13
Electric food processing applianceEN/IEC 60335-2-14ANS/UL 982C22.2 No.1335.2.14
Electric hair dryer/skin and hair care appliancesEN/IEC 60335-2-23ANS/UL 859C22.2 No.36 C22.2 No.68/224 or E335-2-23
Microwave ovensEN/IEC 60335-2-25ANS/UL 923C22.2 No.150 or E335-2-25
Indoor heaterEN/IEC 60335-2-30ANS/UL 1278C22.2 No.46 or E335-2-30
Electric fansEN/IEC 60335-2-80ANS/UL 507C22.2 No.113 or E335-2-80
HumidifierEN/IEC 60335-2-98ANS/UL 998C22.2 No.104 or E335-2-98
Liquid heater/Electric rice cookerEN/IEC 60335-2-15 ANS/UL 1026
ANS/UL1082
ANS/UL 1083
C22.2 No.64 or E335-2-15
Note: Certification is constantly updated. The content is for reference only.

The distinction between whole machine certification and parts certification, requirements

Whole machine certification is the testing of a complete prototype. While Parts certification is only for individual components for certification.

The two have different test standards used.

The whole machine certification has GS., CE, UL, CUL, ETL, CETL, CB, SAA, etc.

Parts certifications are VDE, TUV, TUVPS, KEMA, S, etc.

    Sample
    Circuit diagram
    Exploded viewTestingCertificates
    External dimensional drawingAuditing
    BOM listFactory CheckingTest Report
    Key components listissuance
    Relevant certificates of critical components
    Rating LabelStandard:
    Instruction manualIEC60335-1
    INPUTIEC60335-2-35OUTPUT
    Input and output of product certification (C.B. certification as an example)

    About CB Certificate

    • CB: Scheme of the IECEE for Mutual Recognition of test certificates for Electrical Equipment. It is the first mutual recognition of safety test reports for electrical products, indeed international systems.
    • CB system is an international system established by the IECEE, the certification bodies of member countries based on IEC standards for testing the safety performance of electrical products, CB test reports in the IECEE member countries are mutually recognized system if the national standards of some member countries are not yet entirely consistent with IEC standards, CB allows the existence of national differences, but should be published to other members of the discrepancy test report.
    • The various national certification bodies (NCB) between the formation of multilateral agreements, manufacturers can rely on a CB test certificate issued by the NCB to obtain certification from other member countries of the CB system, but also by many countries that do not participate in the CB. system recognized.
    • C.B certification aims to reduce the barriers to international trade that arise from meeting the accreditation or approval of different countries.
    • Current member countries of the IECEE-CB system (areas where the C.B certificate is applicable).
    • Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Rome, Romania, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Turkey, Ukraine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Turkey, Ukraine, USA, Yugoslavia, Switzerland, Malaysia, Sweden, and Thailand.

    Advantages of CB Certificate

    • It can be converted to domestic certification of CB member countries.
    • Explicit recognition or approval of CB certification in some countries and regions.
    CBCertificate
    Certification typeVoluntary certification
    Scope of applicationC.B. Member States
    Issuing agencyCB recognized NCB institutions (such as TUV, CQC, LCIE, etc.)
    Certification MarkCB
    Marking requirementsCB certificates and test reports cannot be used for any promotional advertising.
    Audit and supervision requirementsType test (do not need annual audit) general CB report is valid in three years (unofficial statement)
    Voltage and frequency requirementsAccording to product standard requirements + national deviation
    CB Certificated

    CE Certificate

    • CE is the French name for Community Europeene. It is an EU (European Union) Product mark promoted by the EU (European Union). A marking declares that a product complies with the relevant EU directives. The CE Mark is mandatory for EU members to sell their products.
    • CE Mark is a mandatory mark, according to the type of product and the scope of use of the situation must fully comply with all the EC directives involved in the development and equipment before the CE Mark can be affixed on the product and allowed to enter the European market.
    • CE marking is a new approach to the EU directive on technical harmonization and standards (New Approach Directives) to prove that the product conforms to the basic requirements of the directive (Essential Requirements) of the conformity mark. To inform consumers which products meet the basic requirements for safety, health, and the environment, and therefore is also known as CE Conformity Marking.
    • All products covered by the New Approach Directive must be marked with the CE before they are placed on the market. The “CE” mark is not intended to serve a commercial purpose and is not a mark of origin but is defined as a legal mark of conformity in European Union law.
    • All new products must be affixed with the “CE” mark before being placed on the market (regardless of whether a member state or another country produces the effect).
    • List of EU Member States (CE Marking Regions):
    • France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Denmark, Poland, Maltese, Slovenian, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Slovak, Czech, Estonian including Latvia, Cyprus, Bulgaria, and Romania.
    • CE is a mandatory requirement for both EMC and LVD. Products must meet low voltage and EMC requirements, CE = LVD + EMC now need to meet ROHS. All products sold to the EU must be marked with CE Mark.
    • EMC: For all electrical products sold in the EU market, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by itself shall not exceed specific standards so as not to affect the regular operation of other products. At the same time, the electrical products also need to have a particular anti-interference ability (EMS) to use the general electromagnetic environment.
    • LVD: is for the working voltage between AC 50V ~ 1000V, DC 75V ~ 1500V, and DC 75V ~ 1500V. Electrical products are required to meet certain electrical safety requirements. For example, insulation distance requirements, high voltage resistance requirements, flammability requirements, temperature rise Restrictions, use of critical components, life, abnormal conditions testing, etc.

    CE Mark Request

    • The height of the CE letters should be at least 5mm, and the total length of the CE letters should not exceed 12mm.
    • CE font width should be not less than 1 in 5 and thickness at least 1/5 of the height. (here at least 20 x 1/5 = 4mm).
    • If the peripheral radius is 10mm, the inner peripheral column should be at least 80% of the peripheral radius (10×0.8=8mm)

    The meaning of the C E

    • The basic need for the product to comply with the relevant directives.
    • The product has undergone conformity assessment following the specified requirements.
    • The product can be circulated freely.
    • Not printed CE mark, false labels or mislabeled products will be punished.
    • Every product must be affixed with a CE mark before it is put on the market and used.
    • The CE marking indicates that the product meets the requirements of all applicable directives for products involving different demands.
    • Only products covered by the relevant CE directives can be affixed with CE.

    About GS Certificate

    GS is German for “Geprufte Sicherheit,” which means “Germany Safety.”

    G.S certification is based on the German Product Safety Act (SGS) and is a Non- Compulsory certification following the E.U harmonized standard. The G.S certification is a Non- Compulsory certification based on the German Product Safety Law (SGS) and tested following the E.U harmonized standard EN or German industrial standard DIN, and is a recognized German safety certification mark in the European market.

    Home appliances, audio equipment, lamps, lanterns, electric Appliances, communication products, office equipment, toys, mechanical products, fitness equipment, etc.

    Common GS certification marks are:

    The GS mark indicates that a credible independent organization has tested the product’s safety in use. Although not Compulsory by law, the GS mark enables the manufacturer to be subject to strict German (European) regulations in the case of a product.

    Product safety law

    Although GS is a German standard, the majority of European countries agree and meet the GS certification at the same time; the product will also meet the European Community’s CE mark. Apart from CE, there is no legal compulsory requirement for GS mark, The GS mark is not legally Compulsory, but since safety awareness has deeply penetrated the general consumers, an electrical appliance with the GS mark may be more competitive than other available products.

      CE (CE=LVD+EMC)EMCGS
      Certification Type Compulsory Compulsory / Non-Compulsory Certification Non-Compulsory Certification
      SuitableE.U.E.U.EU / DE
      Issuing agencyManufacturer, Importer,
      CQC, TUV, LCIE,
      SGS, ITS, etc.
      Manufacturer, Importer, CQC, CQC
      TUV, LCIE, SGS, ITS
      ITS, etc.
      TUV, LCIE, SGS, ITS, and other authorized
      Authorized institutions
      Audit and Supervision Supervision RequirementsType test Type test + annual auditType test + annual audit
      Voltage Frequency Requirement230V~ 50/60Hz (including 230V~)230V~ 50/60Hz (including 230V~)230V~ 50Hz (including 230V~)
      CE&EMC&GS

      About UL Certificate

      UL.:Underwriter Laboratories Inc.

      UL safety laboratory is the most authoritative company in the United States, specializing in product safety inspection and certification of businesses and non-profit private institutions. Whether exported from the United States or entering the U.S market, products must have the U.L mark, with a relatively high degree of authority.

      UL is mainly engaged in product safety certification and business safety certification business. The ultimate goal of the company is to get to the market with a relatively safe level of products to protect personal health and property security.

      Note: UL is a Non-Compulsory Certification.

      Overview of UL standardization

      • Non-mandatory
      • There are 928 UL standards and 376 ULC standards first
      • 70% adopted by ANSI as American National Standards
      • Responsible for the development of low voltage electrical standards below 600V

      The composition of UL standards

      • The scope of products involved
      • The structure of the product requirements
      • The raw materials used in the product requirements
      • The needs of the components used in the product
      • UL laboratory requirements and test methods for sample testing instruments
      • The test equipment requirements and test methods for manufacturing plants
      • The product logo and instructions requirements

      UL listing logo size requirements

      • “C\US\LISTED” requirements in bold letters. LISTED is located on the right or below the UL logo
      • “R” is required to be in bold letters, the diameter of the circle outside the R is at least 1.2mm, and when the outer diameter of the UL mark is less than 9.5mm can be omitted.

      UL certification requires product information to be provided.

      • Name: Provide the full name of the product.
      • Model: detail all the products that need to have experimented with model, variety or classification number, etc.
      • Use: Home, office, factory, coal mine, ship, etc.
      • Parts list: a detailed list of parts and components that make up the product and the model (classification number), rating, and manufacturer’s name.
      • The name of the manufacturer: When the parts have been U.L. certified, please prove the specific type of the parts and indicate their U.L file number.
      • Electrical properties: For electrical and electronic products, provide an electrical schematic (wiring diagram) and electrical properties.
      • Electrical performance: For electrical and electronic products.
      • Structure diagram: For most products, you need to provide the product structure or exploded diagram, the Material list, etc.
      • Photographs, instructions for use, safety items or installation instructions, etc.

      The above information should be provided in English.

      About ETL Certificate

      • An ETL certification marks safety recognition for electrical and electronic products.
      • UL, ETL certification according to UL standards and Canadian CSA standards, the product is marked with the CULS / CETLS logo while enabling the smooth circulation of products in the U.S. and Canadian markets.
      • An ETL certification is voluntary, but products entering the United States and Canada are required to pass the NRTL certification, coupled with historical reasons and human perceptions, resulting in products without the mark not being sold in the U.S. and Canadian markets.

      ETL Rating label requirements

      • Trademark
      • Production date
      • Model number
      • Parameters (power/voltage/frequency)
      • Control number

      The above content font height should be at least 1.6mm.

      Household use only should reach at least 2.4mm, but the color box font height should arrive at least 6.4mm. Rating labels also need to display warning text; different products have different requirements. If the country of sale is Canada, it should be said in French. The packaging must be unified, such as a Rating label, color box, etc.

      Brands must enter the U.S. market when the brand is in the ETL record. Otherwise, the brand information can not be displayed. The registrant is the manufacturer who needs to show the manufacturer’s company name.

      About FCC Certificate

      The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) is an independent agency of the US government that reports directly to Congress. The FCC coordinates domestic and international communications by controlling radio broadcasting, television, telecommunications, satellite, and cable.

      FCC certification is also known as the U.S. federal communications certification. It requires mandatory certification of electromagnetic interference for all electronic products sold in the U.S. market. So the U.S. federal regulations require FCC certification to obtain certification.

      The FCC certification mark products also comply with the following agencies to develop standards.

      U L – US Security Testing Laboratory

      ANSI – American National Standards Organization

      ASME – Canadian Standards Association

      ASTM – American Materials Laboratory

      ASSE – American Society of Safety Practitioners

      N S F – National Science Foundation

      FCC mandatory certification’s purpose is to reduce electromagnetic interference, manage and control the radio frequency range, and protect telecommunications networks, electrical appliances, and the regular operation of electrical products.

      FCC approval method.

      According to the United States Federal Communications Regulations in the relevant part (CFR 47 part), the entry of U.S. electronic products is required to carry out electromagnetic compatibility certification (except for products with special provisions), of which the more common certification methods are three.

      • Certification
      • DoC
      • Verification

      These three product certification methods and procedures have significant differences, and different products can be selected. The choice of certification methods in the FCC has relevant provisions; the certification of the decreasing degree of rigor. The FCC Commission has the relevant requirements for each testing laboratory for these three types of certification.

      Note: If a device applies to two or three types of recognition, the responsible party is to choose.

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